* 初風炉の茶室 Tearoom for Shoburo ( first furo setting of the season )

May in Japan is a beautiful time, temperature is just right, fresh green new shootings are shining in the sun and late spring flowers such as irises, azaleas, wisterias, etc. are in flower.
In the tearoom, 炉 ro is now closed and 風炉 furo is set until the end of October.
 
 風炉 furo was the only water boiling device until 炉 ro was introduced by 村田珠光 MURATA Jukou in late 15th century. Before 珠光 Jukou, 風炉 furo was a part of 唐銅台子皆具 ( bronze daisu- full set ) and 切掛風炉 kirikake-buro ( type of furo on which kama sits without kama stand ). During the time of 珠光 Jukou, 武野紹鷗 TAKENO Jouou and 利休 Rikyu various types of 風炉 furo were introduced.
 
・Types of 風炉 furo by material
    – 土風炉 do-buro  ( earthenware furo, lacquered and polished )
        See Photo 3.
    –  唐銅風炉 karakane-buro ( bronze furo ) See Photo 4.
    –  鉄風炉 tetsu -buro ( cast iron furo  See Photo 5
    –  陶磁器の風炉 toujiki no furo  ( porcelain furo )
    – 板風炉 ita-buro ( almost a cubical timber box with openings at
                                           the top and the front and with clay linings inside )
 
 ・Types of 風炉 furo by formalities 
    – 真 shin ; 眉風炉 mayu-buro ( top of front opening is linked like
       eyebrow ) of 土風炉 do-buro See Photo 3.
    – 行 gyou; 土風炉 do-buro without eyebrows, 唐銅風炉 karakane-buro
       See Photo 4., brass furo, etc. 
    – 草 sou ; 鉄風炉 tetsu-buro, 陶磁器の風炉 toujiki no furo and
       板風炉 ita-buro 
 
 ・Types of 風炉 furo by shapes
   – 切掛風炉 kirikake-buro ( with the top opening smaller than kama and
                                                          kama sits on the opening edge without 五徳
                                                          gotoku)
   – 眉風炉 mayu-buro ( a kind of 土風炉 do-buro with an eyebrow like
                                                link at the top of front opening  五徳 gotoku is
                                                used. ) See Photo 3.
  – 道安風炉 Douan-buro ( with a large U-shaped opening at the front
                                                      五徳 gotoku is used .)
  – 面取風炉 mentori-buro ( a kind of 道安風炉 Douan-buro with beveled
                                                         top edge ) See Photo 4.
  – 四方風炉 yohou-buro (  rectangular furo )
  – 紅鉢風炉 benibachi-buro ( rather small porcelain furo )
  – 欠風炉 kaki-buro ( a kind of 鉄風炉 tetsu-buro with some parts
                                            missing suitable for the end of 風炉 furo season )
                                 
風炉 furo naturally becomes very hot, and a kind of board is placed under 風炉 furo  to protect tatami.
  ・Types of 敷板 shiki-ita ( boards under 風炉 furo )
    – 長板 naga-ita 
    – 半板 han-ita ( half of 長板 naga-ita in width)
    – 大板 oo-ita ( large board, about 42x42cm square )
    – 敷瓦 shiki-gawara ( porcelain board of about 30x30cm square )
       for cast iron furo. SeemPhoto 9.
    – 小板 ko-ita ( small Board, about 30x30cm square, can vary )
            荒目板 arame-ita ( black lacquered with horizontal lines, the
                                                   spaces between them becoming gradually
                                                   narrower. Wider side is the front. ) for
                                                   土風炉do-buro See Photo 6.
            掻合塗小板 kakiawase-nuri ko-ita ( black lacquered showing
                                                                                      timber grains )  for 土風炉
                                                                                      do-buro and 唐銅風炉
                                                                                      karakane-buro
                                                                                      See Photo 7.
            真塗小板 shin-nuri ko-ita ( black lacquered ) for
            唐銅風炉 karakane-buro See Photo 8.
    – 丸板 maru-ita ( round black lacquered showing or
                                       not showing grains )
 
   ・ Combinations of 風炉 furo and 敷板 shiki-ita 
      土風炉 do-buro = 荒目板 arame-ita or 掻合塗小板 kakiawase-nuri ko-ita 
      唐銅風炉 karakane-buro = 掻合塗小板 kakiawase-nuri ko-ita or 真塗小板 shin-nuri ko-ita 
      鉄風炉 tetsu-buro = 敷瓦 shiki-gawara 
      陶磁器の風炉 toujiki no furo = 掻合塗小板 kakiawase-nuri ko-ita 
      四方風炉 yohou-buro = 丸板 maru-ita 
   
  
  ・灰形 hai-gata ( formation of sculpted ash in a furo by spoons )
   – 二文字押切 nimonji oshikiri 
      This is the most standard 灰形 hai-gata and can be used for most
       風炉 furo of different materials and shapes. See Photo 4.
  – 二文字掻上 nimonji kakiage 
     This is used only for 鉄風炉 tetsu-buro. Make 二文字押切 nimonji
      oshikiri first and draw seven, nine or eleven vertical lines.
  – 丸灰押切 marubai oshikiri 
     This is also commonly used particularly for 切掛風炉 kirikake-buro.
     The shape is lake a crater with a circular ridge. If there is 五徳 gotoku,
      make the ridge at the back of claws of gotoku.
  – 丸灰掻上 marubai kakiage 
     This is used for most of 鉄風炉 tetsu-buro. Make 丸灰押切 marubai
      oshikiri first and draw 16 or 24 radial lines from the edge of furo
      wall towards the centre leaving the space for charcoal pieces.
  – 遠山 tooyama 
     This is used for 道安風炉 Douan-buro and 面取風炉 mentori-buro.
     Make the front ridge slightly round and shape a mountain at back
     right in 風炉 furo for 本勝手 hongatte ( conventional tearoom setting
     ) and at back left for 逆勝手 gyakugatte ( opposite format tearoom setting )
  – 向山 mukouyama 
     This is used only for 中置 nakaoki. Make the front ridge slightly round
      and shape a mountain at centre back.
 
Photo 1 
・軸 jiku; 一行 ichigyou 「薫風自南来 」前大徳 積應老師筆                                                                           
                                         “ Kunpuu minami yori kitaru. ( Fragrant wind comes from the south. )”
                                         written by Saki no Daitoku Rev. Sekiou
・花入 hanaire; 信楽 砧 春斎造
                         Shigaraki ware mullet shape by Shunsai
・薄板 usuita ; 杉蛤端 unlacquered cedar board 
・風炉 furo ; 唐銅面取道安風炉 寛斎造
                     bronze mentori Douan-buro by Kansai
・釜 kama ; 松地紋棗釜 正芳造
                    natsume shaped kama with pine tree patterns by Seihou
・棚 tana ; 鵬雲斎大宗匠好 竹寿棚 静峰造
                  Houunsai Daisoushou favoured “ Chikuju-dana “ by Seihou
・水指 mizusashi ; 古染付葡萄棚水指写 静山造
                              replica of old sometsuke grapevine trellis mizusashi by Seizan 
・薄茶器 usucha container ; 紫陽花蒔絵中棗 龍斎塗
                                               middle sized natsume with hydrangea makie by Ryuusai
 
Photo 2 
主菓子 omogashi ; 「落とし文」  “ Otoshibumi ( dropped love letter )”
                                 “ otoshibumi “ itself means a kind of beetle which lays
                                    eggs in a rolled leaf. That rolled leaf looks like a scroll
                                    of letter which people used to drop in front of a
                                    person they were in love in old days before emails and
                                    even telephones. This sweet is very popular during the
                                    season when fresh new leaves are beautiful.
菓子器  kashiki; 輪島塗 真塗 縁高
                          Wajima lacquered  fuchidaka box 
 
                                                                                                           by Itoko Inoue
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*晩春の茶室 Chashitsu in late spring.

炉 ro is a sunken hearth and produces heat to boil water and warm up the room. Room heater function is important during cold winter, that is why it is placed between the guests and the host.However, this function is not needed any more in late spring.  透木釜 sukigi-gama is often used during the last couple of weeks of April in Japan, just before moving into 風炉 furo season. 透木釜 sukigi-gama is a large and rather flat 釜 kama with a wing/ wings and it sits on  炉壇 rodan. It is large enough to hide red hot fire.A pair of wooden sticks are placed between kama wing and 炉壇 rodan to protect 炉壇 rodan and to improve air circulation. See Photo 2. 平蜘蛛 hiragumo-gama and 平丸釜 hiramaru-gama have a wing like Saturn’s ring. While 裏甲釜 uragou-gama has detachable wings. See Photos 1 and 4. It can be used as a usual kama without wings. This 裏甲釜 uragou-gama has a 共蓋 tomo-buta ( kama lid made of cast iron ) with 掻立釻 kaitatekan handle. It usually sits up at the front, and it is flipped back with 茶巾 chakin when 茶巾 chakin sits on the lid. See Photo 3.  Several different timbered 透木 sukigi are available.利休好 Rikyu-gonomi—- 朴 hou ( magnolia)宗旦好 Soutan-gonomi—- 桐 ( paulownia)竺叟好 Chikusou-gonomi—- 桜 ( cherry wood )圓能斎好 Ennousai-gonomi—-梅 ( plum wood )
透木釜 sukigi-gama is used in mid summer to hide red hot fire  in 風炉 furo as well.

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*春の茶室 Chashitsu in Spring

There are some signs of spring arrival. 東風 kochi ( strong easterly wind ) is one of them. 釣釜 tsurigama ( hanging kettle ) is used in March to mid April in Japan. Gently swaying 釜 kama reminds us of 東風 kochi.
五徳 gotoku ( kama stand ) is removed from 炉 ro, a chain is hung from a hook called 蛭釘 hiru-kugi ( leach shaped hook ) on the ceiling and 釜kama is hooked on the chain with a handle called 弦 tsuru. Rather small and cylindrical 釜kama such as 筒釜 tsutsu-gama, 雲龍釜 unryuu-gama, 鶴首釜tsurukubi-gama, etc. is suitable for this. Also 五徳蓋置 gotoku-futaoki can be used, because real 五徳 gotoku is not in 炉 ro.
濃茶点前 koicha-demae and 薄茶点前 usucha-demae are as usual. When 釜 kama sways too much, it can be settled by holding at the 鐶 kan with both hands. 炭手前 sumi- demae needs extra steps to avoid damaging 炉縁 robuchi and 炉壇 rodan, and not to let hanging chain intervene your views.

・軸 jiku ; 一行 ichigyou 「春色無高下 」前大徳宗津筆
                                                    “ Shunshoku mukouge. ( Spring colour are for everybody equally. )”
                                                     by Rev. Soushin                          
・花入 vase ; 朝鮮唐津 認造 
                            Chousen Karatsu ware by Mitomu
・香合 insence container ; 有田 色絵丸文卵形 深川製
                                                         Arita ware, egg shaped with circle patterns by Fukagawa
・釜 kettle ; 棗釜 正芳造
                         date shaped kettle by Seihou 
・棚 stand ; 宗旦好 丸卓 Marujoku favoured by Soutan
・水指 water container ; 三島 豊造
                                                    Mishima ware by Yutaka
・薄器 tea container ; 枝垂桜蒔絵中棗 明斎塗
                                               medium sized natsume with weeping cherry pattern by Meisai
・蓋置 lid rest ; 染付五徳 昭阿弥 造
                                 kettle stand shaped bone china with blue patterns by Shouami
・主菓子 main sweet ; 「 花水木 」菓子椀にて
                                                   ‘ Hanamizuki ( dogwood flower )” in sweet bowl
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「春が来た!」 “ Spring has come!”

軸 :      「春入千林處々鶯」前大徳 福本積應 筆
Scroll ; “ Haru irite senrin shosho no uguisu.”
             ( Spring has come and spring-announcing birds are everywhere in the bush. )
             written by Rev. FUKUMOTO Sekiou
 
香合 :   萩 筍  松堂造
Incense Container ;  Hagi ware Bamboo Shooting made by Shoudou
 
花 : 紫蘭 
Flower ;  Hyacinth Orchid
 
花入 : 唐銅 桔梗口 米山造
Vase ;  bronze with balloon flower shaped opening made by Beizan
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